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    杨东教授解读央行互金风险专项整治:区块链技术可用于科技驱动型的金融监管

    杨东教授解读央行互金风险专项整治:建立网贷平台良性退出机制,推动构建科技驱动型监管体系。

    (解读全文)

    2018年7月9日,中国人民银行会同互联网金融风险专项整治工作领导小组有关成员单位,召开互联网金融风险专项整治下一阶段工作部署动员会。整治工作领导小组组长、央行副行长潘功胜表态称,按照打好防范化解重大风险攻坚战总体安排,再用一到两年时间完成互联网金融风险专项整治,化解存量风险,消除风险隐患,同时初步建立适应互联网金融特点的监管制度体系。

    此次央行表态给接下来互联网金融行业的监管确定了思路、任务和大致时间表,持续了两年多时间的互联网金融专项整治将再度延期,互金行业仍将继续出清。早在2016年10月,国务院办公厅公布《互联网金融风险专项整治工作实施方案》,专项整治工作于2016年4月开始,计划2017年3月底完成。2017年12月8日,P2P网贷风险专项整治工作领导小组办公室下发的《关于做好P2P网络借贷风险专项整治整改验收工作的通知》(57号文),要求各地在2018年4月底之前完成辖内主要P2P机构的备案登记工作、6月底之前全部完成。这表明2018年6月是最后的监管验收期限,不过,直到目前,互联网金融专项整治工作仍在进行中。

    此次互金风险专项整治工作规划主要包含以下几个重要方面:

    一、互金专项整治再延期

    互联网金融专项整治工作开展以来,互联网金融总体风险水平显著下降,监管制度机制逐步完善,但互联网金融领域风险防范化解任务仍然艰巨,适应互联网金融特点的监管体制机制有待进一步完善。此次监管表态,间接表明互联网金融领域的风险隐患依旧突出,当前整改期的一系列政策组合拳非但不会退出,未来还有可能进一步强化。

    中国的互联网金融已经发展了11年,在此期间存在的问题,并不是“一刀切”的整治或者备案能一次性解决的,各类问题错综复杂。更为关键的是,当前公众对于网贷行业的印象和定位,很多依然是以信用中介的形式看待,投资人迷信的是平台的品牌、体量、股东等反映平台信用的条件,大多数投资人并不具备独立判断底层资产风险的能力,也不具备承受风险的能力,网贷平台以高风险的资产面对低风险承受能力的普通人,是这个行业所存在的最难调和的问题?;ソ鹱ㄏ钫涡枰痈旧系骱驼飧雒?,要建立平台退出机制、建立投资人风险承受能力评估、投资人准入机制。

    二、P2P网贷平台备案及良性退出

    2018年6月以来,P2P网贷行业出现了一波平台爆雷潮,行业参与者市场心态明显波动。网贷平台的退出以恶性方式为主,多数出现提现困难。在后续的平台退出方式上,央行明确要稳妥有序加速存量违法违规机构和业务活动退出,引导机构无风险退出,对于违规的平台则开展行政处罚和刑事打击。未来,网贷行业的平台退出方式有望回归良性状态。央行公告中明确了再用1到2年时间完成互联网金融风险专项整治。在网贷行业,备案的延期已经在市场预期之中,1-2年时间等于给了监管方和平台方比较充分的时间做完善和调整。

    备案延期表明了P2P行业合规整改的复杂性。当前,P2P行业的监管规则基本明确,难的是落地执行,合规整改以不发生系统性风险为第一原则,为促进行业长期可持续发展为重要目标,需要统筹考虑各种因素,比如银行存管的落地需要考虑到存管银行的态度和推进力度、比如存量违规业务的清理需要考虑到业务期限结构和流动性压力等等,最终的结果便是预先设定的期限一再延后。某种程度上,也是合规整改实事求是的表现。

    在未来的监管体系上,央行公告中两次强调了要建立适应互联网金融特点的监管体系,这表明监管方会更加深入的研究互联网金融的特点,进行监管上的创新。同时,在1-2年时间内初步建立适应互联网金融特点的监管制度体系,显示监管方无意急于求成,而是将根据行业变化不断修正和完善,更加契合行业实际。

    三、构建科技驱动型监管路径

    监管原则与监管手段双轮驱动金融监管的发展。我们有必要在传统金融监管维度之外,加之以科技维度,形成双维监管体系,以科技驱动型的监管思路应对新技术发展对于金融监管的挑战,采用与金融科技发展相匹配的科技驱动型监管模式回应金融科技监管的特殊性,以契合金融科技创新的技术性本质特征。双维监管体系是在传统金融监管维度之外增加科技维度,弥补传统金融监管在应对金融科技风险方面的力不从心。双维监管体系可以克服审慎监管等传统金融监管的弊端与不足,科技驱动型监管将带来金融监管模式的根本性变革。

    英国金融行为监管局(FCA)创造性发展出的有效测试金融创新产品和服务的“监管沙箱”制度,为支持Regtech的未来发展提供了契机。监管者可以通过监管沙箱来构建促进创新和市场信心的新型监管框架。监管沙箱是实现对Regtech进行预期管理的有效保障,有助于参与式规则制定,即允许监管者在制定规则、预测趋势、设想替代未来和促进改进结果方面采取多层次的信息以实现动态监管。Regtech的沙箱实验可以使监管者了解新技术在测试环境中的运行,从而有助于解决“黑匣子”问题。监管者可以设置沙箱实验的激励机制以促进竞争。现金奖励可能并非最佳选择,而监管数据库的进入权限似乎更具吸引力。

    此外,多中心化技术(如区块链技术)可用于科技驱动型的金融监管。在这种模式下,监管者扮演者双重角色:制定法律法规;与技术专家合作,将法律法规内嵌于多中心化技术之中并获得全网认可,从而使法律法规的执行通过代码实现。

    文章原标题:杨东教授解读央行互金风险专项整治:建立网贷平台良性退出机制 推动构建科技驱动型监管体系


    本文来源: momoshui 文章作者: 佚名
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