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    中伦文德陈云峰:区块链电子存证法律效力分析

    2018年6月28日,杭州互联网法院在一起侵权纠纷案中,首次认可采用区块链技术进行存证的电子数据的法律效力。作为专门审理涉网案件的试点法院,杭州互联网法院的认定结果,不仅确定了区块链电子存证技术的司法地位,并且对其他法院在审判过程中在认可电子数据的区块链存证的电子数据作为证据的证据效力的也将起到参考作用。

    01

    一、电子数据的证明力

    (一)电子数据证据的概念

    2015年《民诉解释》第116条第二款规定:“电子数据是指通过电子邮件、电子数据交换、网上聊天记录、博客、微博客、手机短信、电子签名、域名等形成或者存储在电子介质中的信息?!?/p>

    因此,作为证据类型的电子数据,可以归结为以电子、电磁、光学等形式或类似形式储存在计算机中的信息作为证明案件事实的证据资料,既包括计算机程序及其所处理的信息,也包括其他应用专门技术设备检测得到的信息资料。

    (二)电子数据证据的特征

    电子数据证据不同于传统的证据形式,有其自身的特殊属性,具有形式的无形性、真伪的脆弱性、传递的技术性、极强的可复制性和互相的印证性等特征。

    (三)电子数据证据的表现形式

    根据2015年《民诉解释》关于电子数据证据的规定,可以将民事电子数据的表现形式归纳为以下几种:

    1、在电子通讯当中的电子数据证据,比如手机短信、电话录音、手机拍摄的照片等,虽然这类电子数据证据有一定传统证据的影子,但是因这类型证据的存在需要借助一定的载体,所以上述类型的证据应当被认为是电子数据证据。

    2、根据计算机技术生成的电子数据证据,这类型的证据是通过数据图片、数据文档、数据库等形式表现的。

    3、依靠计算机网络而生成的电子数据证据,主要是通过电子邮件、电子聊天记录、电子签章等形式表现的。

    (四)电子数据证据的固定

    笔者通过以“电子数据”、“公证”为关键词,对涉及电子数据证据的87起民事案件裁判文书进行了梳理,发现法院对于公证真实性的认证主要有如下几项要求:

    1. 公证书内容需证明同案件存在关联性;

    2. 公证操作步骤不能存在瑕疵,如无公证人员监督的情况下,通过个人操作计算机获取电子数据;

    3. 所用计算机操作环境及网络环境取证前需要事先进行标准化清洁性检查,即在操作之初已进行了消除缓存、格式化等操作;

    4. 通过可靠技术手段证明待验证的电子数据未被修改,具备内容的完整性;

    5. 通过可靠技术手段证明待验证的电子数据形成时间的准确性。

    综上可以看出,上述公证的法律效力的认定要求主要分成两个阶段进行综合考虑:

    1. 生成、储存或者传递数据电文方法的可靠性;

    2. 保持内容完整性方法的可靠性。

    02

    二、首例区块链电子存证分析

    在杭州互联网法院发布的上述案件中,原告通过自动调用谷歌开源程序 puppeteer对侵权网页进行图片抓取,同时通过调用curl获取目标网页源码。

    Puppeteer系谷歌官方出品的通过 Devtools协议控制headress Chrome的Node库,可通过其提供的API作为爬虫访问页面来收集数据。Curl命令系利用URL规则在命令行下工作的文件传输工具,通过模拟HTTP请求,获取页面内容、版本等信息。该种固证系统对所有人都平等开放,任何人都可以使用,且其操作过程是按照取证系统事先设定好的程序由机器自动完成的,取证、固证全过程被人为改相关链接的可能性较小,故该电子数据来源可信性较高;同时,千麦鉴定所对使用 puppeteer和curl程序进行网页截图和源码调取的技术性进行了鉴别并确认。因此,在没有相反证据推翻的情况下,认定该电子数据生成、存储可靠。

    网页截图、源代码和调用信息打包压缩计算出SHA256值后上传至FACTOM区块链、比特币区块链中,由于区块链网络具有难以篡改、删除的特点,法院因此认为该种保存电子数据内容完整性的方法可靠。

    03

    三、区块链电子存证法律效力

    从首例区块链电子存证案中可以看出,区块链技术以其自身的特点在保证电子数据内容完整性上是可靠的,但这是否意味着以区块链技术存证的电子数据都具有法律效力呢?

    如上述分析,电子数据的法律效力需综合考虑两个阶段进行分析:

    一是生成阶段的法律效力。即存储在区块链中的电子数据应当是完整的、真实的。

    二是存储阶段的法律效力。即作为存储媒介的区块链技术本身被验证为不易被篡改,并且存储稳定。

    该案例中,法院对于区块链网络所能实现的存储阶段的法律效力进行了一定程度的支持,在实务中,应当从上述两个过程从发,依法予以认定电子数据的法律效力。

    区块链技术分布式、不易被篡改的特性,随着技术本身的成熟和完善,无疑会逐渐被普遍,并且能够有效地取代公证机构的一部分职能,减轻人力、物力资源,同时也能实现更大程度的公平性,因此对于发展区块链技术的企业来说是存在巨大应用前景,对于致力于区块链存证领域的企业来说,一方面可以积极发掘区块链存证技术的更多潜力;另一方面,对于电子数据生成过程的存证和固定也可以进行相应的技术探索。

    作者:陈云峰律师

    中伦文德律师事务所高级合伙人

    互联网金融专业委员会主任

    擅长互联网金融、区块链、争议解决业务。

    本文来源: momoshui 文章作者: 佚名
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