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    区块链扩容之路为何这样难?简析三种主要的扩容方法

    如何对区块链进行扩容,使其每秒可以处理数百甚至数千笔交易,同时又不影响其去中心化特征?这一问题不仅让加密领域中一些最聪明的人夜不能寐,也让一些更狂热的加密货币派系多年来频频发生口水战。

    在这篇关于区块链扩容的入门文章中,news.Bitcoin.com对三个著名的加密货币项目——比特币(Bitcoin Core)、比特币现金(Bitcoin Cash)和Zilliqa——所采用的非常不同的扩容方法进行了阐述。

    blockchain-3041480_960_720

    图片来源:pixabay

    扩容简史

    事实上,在不影响去中心化的前提下提高交易吞吐量有一定的难度。在比特币的早期,人们很少讨论扩容问题,因为这根本不是一个问题。当时比特币每秒交易处理量(TPS)很低,交易费用也很低。比特币还有更重要的问题需要解决,比如修复关键的漏洞,以及创建一个生态系统,支持活跃的用户社区,确保比特币能够存活足够长的时间以实现规?;?。这并不是说扩容从来没有被提起过;事实上,这个话题在Bitcointalk论坛、IRC聊天和电子邮件中被讨论过很多次,但都不是作为一个迫在眉睫的问题来讨论的。

    例如,在发给Bitcoinj开发人员Mike Hearn的一封电子邮件中,中本聪提出了一种支付渠道的想法,其中“交易各方可以一致同意不断更新交易数据(tx),只有最终结果才会被网络记录下来”。闪电网络(Lightning Network, LN)的支持者抓住了这一点,将其作为中本聪设想的基于比特币协议的第二层解决方案的证据。然而,考虑到中本聪已“消失”近9年,我们不可能肯定地说,他对沿着这些方法扩容比特币的愿景是什么。

    然而,值得注意的一点是,比特币在最初启动时没有区块大小限制。一年后,中本聪引入了一个1MB的区块大小限制来防止垃圾交易攻击。很明显,比特币的创造者设想了未来比特币网络可以引入更大的区块,他在2010年10月写道,更大的区块“可以分阶段引入,比如:如果(区块数量>115000,则最大区块规模=更大的限制[if (blocknumber > 115000), maxblocksize = largerlimit]”因此,比特币(第二层/LN)和BCH(更大的区块)所采用的扩容方法的支持者都可以声称自己的解决方案符合中本聪的早期愿景。在了解了一种非常不同的区块链扩容方法之后,我们将很快研究每种方法的优缺点。

    分片解决方案

    如果将更大的区块比作构建一个更大的工厂,那么分片(Sharding)就类似于在该工厂内创建一条装配线,这样每个工人(矿工)都会分配一个专门的任务,即验证区块的一部分,而不是整个区块。Zilliqa是一个以推行这种扩容技术而闻名的加密网络,其创始人在2016年发表了一篇关于将分片引入公共区块链的可行性的论文。通过将交易验证过程拆分为多个部分(或碎片),可以显著提高吞吐量,从而实现更高的TPS。

    Zilliqa在最近的测试网络中使用2400个节点,其声称记录的吞吐量达到了约2800 tx/s。当被问及将分片技术应用于基于UTXO的区块链(如比特币)的可行性时,Zilliqa的首席科学官Amrit Kumar告诉news.Bitcoin.com:“分片技术确实可以用于UTXO链。事实上,已经有一些学术著作专门研究了基于UTXO链的分片技术?!狈制谝蕴坏睦┤菡铰灾蟹⒒庸丶饔?。尽管这种方法能够显著提高吞吐量,但它也有弊端,我们将很快对此进行研究,但首先,让我们回到比特币因扩容理念不同而导致的激烈分叉事件中来。

    比特币扩容之争

    正如Aaron van Wirdum在《通往隔离验证的漫漫长路》(The Long Road to Segwit)一文中所写的那样:

    “从技术上讲,自2010年10月以来,区块大小限制这个问题就一直在凸显,更具体地说,自2013年2月以来,这个问题开始被公开讨论,到2015年春天,这个问题终于爆发了?!?/blockquote>

    在这场争论中, Gavin Andresen和Mike Hearn等开发人员赞成将比特币的区块规模扩容至1MB以上,而忠于Blockstream的Bitcoin Core开发人员则赞成保留1MB的限制,并提出通过其他方式进行扩容。最初,这是通过隔离验证(Segwit)来实现的,它减少了每个交易的平均大小,但最终的方案将是使用第二层解决方案闪电网络,其中多个交易发生在链下,只有初始和最终的交易进行链上记录。

    由于其复杂性,闪电网络的开发一直受到重复延迟和用户体验(UX)问题的困扰,而且网络还没有完全准备好。然而,该网络在2019年一直在稳步增长,目前拥有近1100BTC的容量,超过8300个节点和3.8万多个通道。LN的优势包括可以立即结算交易,交易费用微不足道。不过,闪电网络也有一些批评者,他们对其复杂性和对流动性提供者的依赖提出了质疑,而流动性提供者的各种意图和目的使网络成为一个相对中心化和受托管的解决方案。

    链上扩容

    许多认为应该在链上解决扩容问题的人已经转向比特币现金,比特币现金即将迎来两周年生日??蠊っ呛廖蘩训卮?MB大小区块,而且费用仍然很低,使得BCH的发送价格不到一美分。大区块扩容方法的批评人士往往抓住两个攻击点:大区块在网络中传播需要更长时间,而在未来几年,当区块奖励减少时,交易费用将不足以激励矿工来维护网络安全。

    大区块的支持者声称,不断提高的数据存储成本和下载速度可以否定第一个批评,而区块奖励的减少可以在未来得到解决。至少在这个时候,比特币现金正按照其支持者的设想发挥作用。然而,由于根深蒂固的分歧和持续不断的批评声音,链上和链下扩容方案的支持者们很可能永远不会意见一致。双方的分歧很大,推特上比特币和比特币现金的支持者们无时无刻不在进行“交火”。

    区块链扩容的未来

    虽然大区块和闪电网络被视为扩展比特币的第二选择,但它们实际上只是目前BCH和BTC分别看重的两种主流方法。实际上,还有许多其他提高吞吐量的提议,包括侧链,它可以减轻网络的压力,而无需切换到类似于闪电网络的托管解决方案。

    例如,尽管分片与所谓的第二代区块链相关,但其对于诸如比特币和比特币现金等基于UTXO的区块链也是可行的。然而,它也有必须加以调整的缺点。正如Zilliqa的Amrit Kumar所解释的那样:

    “在非分片网络中,每个节点独立验证每笔交易。但是,在分片网络中,只有网络的一个子集验证每笔交易。所以,从理论上讲,你得到的安全保障确实稍微弱一些。然而在实践中,如果分片大小(每个分片中的节点数量)足够大(比如600个左右),并且从初始网络中随机选择,那么分片中发生任何不好事情的可能性就会非常小?!?/blockquote>

    尽管不同的区块链在如何实现高吞吐量方面有着不同的愿景,但项目之间的差异却在增加。从比特币最初诞生到现在,已经产生了成千上万个加密网络,每个网络都在坚持不懈地追求自己的扩容路径。

    本文来源: momoshui 文章作者: 佚名
      下一篇

    去中心化应用程序或DApps需要特殊的系统设计才能实现高安全性和可靠性,本文将介绍如何为去中心化应用程序正确设计和实现后端和智能合同的几个主要原则。

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