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    温水煮青蛙 以太坊如何让矿工接受PoS?| 白话区块链入门105

    3月初以太坊的君士坦丁堡升级,其中包含了一条,将难度炸弹(Difficulty Bomb)往后推迟12个月的改进协议。有读者给白话区块链留言说,这句话每个字都认识,但就是没看懂这句话是什么意思。那我们今天就来简单介绍下难度炸弹吧。

     01 
    什么是难度炸弹?

    比特币的挖矿难度调整和算力变化相关,如果在一个难度调整周期内,平均出块时间超过10分钟,那么挖矿难度下调,反之,挖矿难度上调。

    相比之下,以太坊难度调整算法更复杂。以太坊难度调整算法分为两部分:一部分与比特币相似,根据算力变化对出块时间的影响,调整挖矿难度;另一部分就是我们今天要介绍的难度炸弹。

    难度炸弹对挖矿难度影响是一个渐变的过程,与区块编号(即区块高度)相关。区块高度越高,难度炸弹对挖矿难度的增大越明显。刚开始时,受难度炸弹的影响,挖矿难度增加并不显著,但是随着时间的推移,难度炸弹的威力会逐步显现出来,挖矿难度几乎随区块高度增加呈指数增长,直至最后几乎挖不出区块,进入挖矿的”冰川时代”(Ice Age)。

     02 
    为什么要设置难度炸弹

    以太坊系统为什么要设置难度炸弹呢?

    白话区块链之前介绍过以太坊发展分为四个阶段,在前三个阶段采用的是PoW共识机制,到了第四个阶段,也就是宁静阶段,以太坊将切换成PoS共识机制。

    一旦转换成PoS共识机制,以太坊出块就不用挖矿了,矿机就报废了,那些投入了大量资金参与挖矿的矿工将面临损失。如果以太坊的共识机制直接从PoW换成PoS,势必将引起矿工的共同抵制,造成社区分裂,以太坊也将难逃被分裂成两条链的命运。

    正是为了避免这种情况的发生,以太坊在挖矿难度调整算法中,加入了难度炸弹这个因子。正如前文所说的,难度炸弹对挖矿难度的增加是一个渐变的过程,对于投入设备挖矿的矿工就像是温水煮青蛙的过程,这将有助于以太坊从PoW更顺利过渡到PoS。

     03 
    难度炸弹的延期

    以太坊难度炸弹做过两次延期调整,这两次调整分别发生在以太坊第三阶段的拜占庭和君士坦丁堡升级。以太坊的难度炸弹为什么要延期呢?

    以太坊要从PoW转换成PoS,有很多问题需要解决。当这些问题解决之后,以太坊的才能切换到PoS共识机制。

    以太坊团队设想当难度炸弹的威力显现出来时,也正好是以太坊需要从PoW转换为PoS的时候。因为难度炸弹的作用,导致矿工也很难挖出区块,而且随着区块高度的增加,挖矿难度呈指数增长,所以矿工也只能”被迫”同意转入PoS机制了。

    但实际情况远没有当初设想的那么顺利,造成了以太坊转入PoS的时间点一再推迟,此时难度炸弹威力已经发挥出来了,矿工们还只能在PoW共识机制下继续挖矿。这导致以太坊出块时间持续延长,如果不采取措施的话,出块时间将变得越来越长,所以在以太坊第三阶段的两个升级过程中,对难度炸弹效果做了延期处理,给PoS上线争取了一些时间。

    本文来源: momoshui 文章作者: 佚名
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