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    最近热议的DeFi是什么?| 白话区块链入门107

    最近,很多业内人士和媒体都在纷纷议论DeFi,探讨DeFi的生态体系和未来发展前景。

    那么,什么是DeFi呢?它和FinTech是一回事吗?如果不是,区别是什么?今天,我们就一起来了解一下DeFi的相关知识。 

     01 
    什么是DeFi,和FinTech有什么不同?

    先说说前几年被传统媒体大肆报道的FinTech。FinTech(金融科技)主要是通过机器学习(Machine Learning)和人工智能(Artificial Intelligence),去做更好的预测和判断。

    FinTech的核心是信用。FinTech公司根据用户的历史消费记录,利用机器学习和人工智能进行大数据分析,计算出不同用户的信用水平,然后根据信用水平的不同推出不同的金融服务,比如贷款服务。举个例子,FinTech领域的巨头蚂蚁金服,就是通过支付宝每天产生的各种交易数据,计算分析后针对不同信用等级的人推出不同额度的花呗服务。

    和FinTech不同,DeFi(去中心化金融)更多的是指去中心化的金融衍生品和相关服务,背后是分布式账本和区块链技术。

    因为是去中心化的,所以DeFi没有信用体系。FinTech会根据历史数据给用户评估一个信用等级,DeFi主要存在于去中心化的区块链上,绝大部分DeFi产品也没有做身份上链,使用者基本都是匿名或是半匿名状态。

    DeFi的愿景是一切资产都可以Token化,自由地在全球开放的市场上交易。 

     02 
    目前知名度高的DeFi:Maker DAO

    从稳定币到去中心化Token兑换平台、借贷,目前DeFi项目已有数千个,整个生态系统正在蓬勃发展。

    ▲ 以太坊上的DeFi产品
    来源:
    theblockcrypto.com

    下面,通过以太坊网络上知名度较高的DeFi——Maker DAO,帮助大家更深层次地理解DeFi的运作。

    我们可以把Maker DAO简单理解成一家去中心化的银行,它可以发行自己的稳定币——Dai,Dai与美元1:1锚定。

    传统金融服务中最重要的业务之一就是放贷。假设加密货币投资者张三全款买了房后,遇到了真爱打算结婚,却没有钱办婚礼,打算去银行贷款。银行会调查张三的信用记录,并用张三的资产(比如房子)作为抵押,才肯贷款给他。

    在去中心化的“银行”Maker DAO里,该如何实现呢?其实很简单,Maker DAO不需要查张三的信用记录,甚至也根本不知道他是张三(区块链的匿名性)。Maker DAO会要求张三抵押区块链资产,假设张三有价值15万美元的ETH,全部通过智能合约抵押给了Maker DAO,Maker DAO会给张三最多10万个Dai(价值10万美元),因为Maker DAO规定抵押物的价值至少是贷款额的1.5倍。有了Dai,张三可以兑换成法定货币(比如美元)在生活中使用。

    等张三以后有钱了,可以在市场上买入Dai,还给Maker DAO并支付利息,赎回抵押的ETH资产。假设行情下跌,张三原先价值15万美元的ETH也缩水了,已经低于贷款额的1.5倍,Maker DAO就会强制卖出张三的ETH用来偿还他的贷款,保证Maker DAO自己“不会破产”。

     03 
    结语

    以太坊创始人V神曾说,金融和游戏会是区块链技术最先落地的两个领域。相比于传统的金融服务机构,DeFi确实有很多优势,比如去中心化、透明度高、费用低等等。

    正如很多人无法理解区块链技术一样,DeFi也存在认知门槛,科普道路任重道远。

    本文来源: momoshui 文章作者: 佚名
      下一篇

    公私密钥对是区块链技术加密手段的重要基石,同时也是加密货币安全性的保证。但公私密钥的配对是不对称的

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